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Violence Against Women & Girls in San Francisco

Meeting the Needs of Survivors
December 2000

 

By:
Jennifer L. Price, M.A. (Access Social Knowledge)
Sandra Soo-Jin Lee, Ph.D. (Access Social Knowledge)
Seline Szkupinski Quiroga (Culture Cures Consulting)

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Violence Against Women and Girls In San Francisco (PDF)

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

1.0 INTRODUCTION

2.0 METHODOLOGY

3.0 SERVICES

4.0 SURVEY OF SAN FRANCISCO'S WOMEN AND GIRLS

5.0 PRIORITY POPULATIONS

6.0 BARRIERS TO SERVICES

7.0 RECOMMENDATIONS

8.0 FUTURE RESEARCH

APPENDIX A

APPENDIX B

APPENDIX C

APPENDIX D

APPENDIX E

APPENDIX F (PENDING)

APPENDIX G

APPENDIX H

BIOGRAPHIES

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

PURPOSE

The Commission on the Status of Women (COSW) has requested this needs assessment of Violence against Women and Girls services in the City of San Francisco. The goals are to determine the needs of clients currently receiving Violence against Women (VAW) services from agencies funded by COSW, from agencies not funded by COSW, and of potential clients not currently receiving services. In assessing the needs of these three groups, this study describes services that are currently offered, barriers experienced by women and girls in seeking and accessing services, and gaps in current programming that need to be addressed. This study also identifies and describes populations that experience a higher risk of exposure to violence and/or are currently under-served by the existing VAW programs in San Francisco. In conclusion, recommendations, based upon the experiences, needs, and concerns of San Francisco's women and girls and the insights and experiences of service providers, are offered to improve the provision of violence prevention and intervention services.

DEFINING VIOLENCE: AN ANTHROPOLOGICAL APPROACH

Violence against women and girls in contemporary U.S. society is pervasive. While the threat of violence affects all women and girls, a complex interaction of social factors may produce different experiences of violence for particular populations. These factors include economic resources and opportunities, immigrant status, and societal attitudes and prejudices regarding race, ethnicity, religion, gender, and sexuality. The interplay of these various factors results in different risks for exposure to violence and in different needs for services.

In defining violence, it is critical to understand that violence against women is not a singular phenomenon but manifests itself in many forms and contexts. In this study, violence has been defined to include physical, emotional, sexual, psychological, and/or financial abuse or control. Sexual assault includes rape, sexual abuse, sexual harassment, and incest. In examining needs and services, this study includes all violence whether perpetrated by an intimate partner or family member, by a stranger or acquaintance, or by an authority figure.

While this definition of violence guided research, it was necessary to determine if it resonates with the diverse populations that reside in San Francisco. The first step in understanding the needs of women and girls is determining how violence is identified and dealt with by different communities. Gaining the perspectives of women and girls who have experienced violence has been a central priority of this study and has influenced the identification of priority populations and the generation of recommendations that meet the needs of the diverse communities in San Francisco.

METHODOLOGY

Primary data was collected in three phases encompassing interviews with agencies providing Violence Against Women (VAW) services and agencies working with populations deemed at-risk or under-served in phase one; focus groups and one-on-one interviews with women and girls who experienced violence, and key informant interviews with individuals who have expertise on specific population in phase two; and a city-wide survey administered in person and over the phone in phase three.

This mix of qualitative and quantitative methods allowed us to determine available services, determine the vulnerabilities, needs and barriers faced by women and girls in priority populations, and assess the needs of women and girls in the general population of San Francisco.

SERVICES AVAILABLE IN SAN FRANCISCO

There is an extensive and diverse array of services available to women and girls within the City of San Francisco. This report summarizes these services according to the type of agency that provides the service (violence-specific agency or community based agency) and by type of service (crisis intervention, non-crisis intervention, prevention), as well as discussing the various service models utilized in San Francisco. While there are numerous services available, gaps exist in services that target specific populations, in enough services to meet particular needs such as emergency shelter, and in services that utilize alternative models in dealing with violence.

PRIORITY POPULATIONS

Priority populations are those populations under-served by existing services and/or at a high risk for victimization. These populations encompass many identities including culture, religion, immigrant status, type of violence experienced, occupation, housing status, disability, age, gender identity and sexual orientation.

The priority populations identified are:

  • sex workers
  • adult survivors of sexual assault
  • child and adolescent survivors of sexual assault
  • the disabled
  • the elderly
  • youth
  • lesbian, bisexual and transgender women
  • recent immigrants
  • Muslim women
  • Asian American women
  • Native American women
  • African American women
  • Latina
  • perpetrators.

A discussion of the particular needs of each population including existing barriers to seeking and/or accessing services is offered in conjunction with specific recommendations for services.

CITYWIDE SURVEY RESULTS

Both women and girls who had and had not experienced violence were questioned about their needs should they ever experience violence in the future, service provider preferences, and the most effective ways to inform women and girls about services and to prevent violence. Survey questions were categorized according to the perpetrator of the violence: an intimate partner or family member, a stranger or acquaintance, and an authority figure.

Violence From An Intimate Partner Or Family Member

When asked what kind of help would be needed if they experienced violence from an intimate partner or a family member, the most common answer was therapy (counseling, support groups, etc.) (17%) followed by legal help1 (14%), a place to go such as a shelter or group home (13%), and support from family or friends (11%). As to where they would seek this help, 28% would use informal networks of friends, family members and co-workers, 21% stated they would seek help at VAW agencies and 18% would seek help from a health care provider.

Violence From A Stranger Or Acquaintance

In situations of violence from a stranger, the type of help needed most frequently mentioned by respondents was legal help (23%), followed by therapy (11%), and support from family and friends (11%). Other needs commonly mentioned were medical treatment (10%) and steps to make one feel safe (8%). Five percent of respondents gave an open-ended answer, the most common being immediate self-defense measures to help fight off an attacker such as fighting and yelling. Respondents stated that they would seek these types of help by asking for referrals from an informal network (32%), from health care providers (24%) and from either community-based organizations (14%) or official entities like law enforcement (14%).

Violence From An Authority Figure

In situations of violence from an authority figure, the type of help needed most frequently mentioned was legal help (24%), talking to someone who believes you (16%), therapy (12%) and support from family or friends (11%). Respondents said they would seek this help by using their informal network of friends, family, or co-workers (34%) or going to institutional entities such as unions, labor boards, and law enforcement (20%). Also mentioned were community-based organizations (15%) and health care providers (16%).

Service Provider Preferences

If the service provider did not speak the same language but used an interpreter, 53% would be less likely to seek services while 29% would be as likely to seek services.

If the service agency were in the same neighborhood, 56% would be more likely to seek services while 29% would be just as likely.

If the service provider were the same sexual orientation as the respondent, 51% would be just as likely to seek services while 37% would be more likely.

If the service provider were the same ethnicity as the respondent, 50% would be just as likely to seek services while 39% would be more likely.

65% of the sample felt it was very important that the service provider be sensitive and knowledgeable about their background.

Informing Women and Girls about Available Services

Twenty-nine percent of the sample felt that the most effective way of informing women and girls about services was through the media (e.g. newspaper, television, radio, billboard, and MUNI advertisements), followed by programs located at sites such as schools, daycare facilities, and the workplace (17%). Both community leaders and health workers were mentioned by 7% of the sample as being effective venues to inform people of available services.

Violence Prevention

The most frequently mentioned way to prevent violence against women and girls was to increase community awareness (14%), followed by self-defense/safety classes for women and girls (12%) and life skills classes such as parenting, job training, and self-empowerment training (12%). Also mentioned were anger management programs for abusers (11%) and diversionary programs for youth (e.g. after-school or summer programs) (11%). Nine percent provided open-ended responses, the most common of which was education.2

BARRIERS TO SERVICES

Agencies and the women and girls they hope to serve face numerous barriers to providing and accessing services. These barriers mark the gaps in services available in San Francisco.

Barriers To Providing Services

Chronic Shortage of Qualified Staff

Adequate staffing was one of the significant barriers to their ability to provide violence against women programming. Staffing for violence related programs requires maturity and experience in handling sensitive issues, as well as a willingness to work long hours for low wages and few benefits. In addition, most agencies reported difficulties in the recruitment of bilingual employees.

Inadequate Training of Agency Workers

Staff members are often unequipped to work with women with special needs such as women who have been abused by other women, women who adhere to traditional views on sexuality, women working in prostitution or the sex industry, and women who are homeless and/or using illegal substances.

Inadequate Training of Private Sector Providers

Private therapists and physicians often have little or no training in dealing with domestic violence or sexual assault. These service providers may fail to recognize or acknowledge domestic violence, minimize the problem, or blame the women for the violence.

Short Term Funding

The time and resources required to constantly apply for funding and to satisfy the requirements made by funders limit VAW agencies' abilities to develop and maintain programs, and to initiate innovative long-term programs.

Inadequate Infrastructure

Organizations are in need of improvements in their facilities such as upgrades in existing computer and telecommunications equipment, the purchase of software that increase efficiency in the management of services and clients, increasing compliance with ADA standards, and relocating to larger more accessible locations.

Barriers To Receiving Services

Will Not Seek Services Identified as Violence Related

The stigma and shame associated with experiencing violence prevents some women and girls from accessing such services, particularly if they feel responsible for the violence, don't want to embarrass family by telling outsiders about violence, and don't want to be identified as a "victim."

Do Not Identify with Available Services

Many women and girls believe that services provided by agencies outside of their particular communities are not directed at them, will not be sensitive to their particular needs, or will encourage inappropriate or unwanted actions.

No Unified Definition of Violence

While physical violence seems to be broadly accepted as violence by women and girls, other forms such as forced sex (particularly in the context of marriage), verbal insults and intimidation, emotional torment, and financial control are not so widely defined as violence. If an individual does not define her experience as violence, no matter how much she may desire change, she will not seek help from violence prevention or intervention programs.

Inability to Communicate with Service Providers

Inability to communicate--either because of language, literacy or disability--prevents awareness of services and the ability to access them.

Belief that Violence can not be Resolved

For some women the predominant view of violence is that physical, verbal and emotional abuse is commonplace, to be expected, and that alternatives are impossible to imagine.

Fear of Negative Consequences from Seeking Services

Many women and girls have valid fears about potential consequences of seeking services that include the fear of losing custody of their children, of ending an emotional relationship, of ostracism from their community for `airing dirty laundry', of deportation, of not receiving services because they are not believed, and fear of prejudicial treatment.

Not Aware of Available Services

Some women, especially recent immigrants, may not be familiar with the idea of violence related services.

Attitudes towards Age and Gender

Beliefs in age hierarchy and traditional gendered roles significantly prevent many women from questioning abuse or perceiving options for dealing with abuse.

Concepts of Privacy and Shame

A dominant belief among many women and girls is that violence, particularly within the family, is considered shameful and a private matter.

Emotional Reactions

Women who have experienced violence repeatedly refer to the emotional turmoil caused by violence. They cite volatile emotional states of confusion; despair and disbelief coupled with fear of retaliation as contributing to women's and girls' inability to seek services. The psychological impact of repeated attacks on one's self-esteem, feelings of helplessness, and an inability to trust others also contribute to why women and girls do not seek services.

RECOMMENDATIONS

The following recommendations emphasize the need for violence-specific agencies and community based organizations (CBOs) to collaborate in addressing violence. The development of violence prevention and intervention programs within CBOs must be promoted and supported. These programs should be population-specific and ameliorate specific barriers that violence-specific agencies cannot adequately address. And they should be designed and operated through collaboration with violence-specific agencies, creating an integrated, citywide response to violence.

The following general recommendations integrate, expand upon, or are in addition to specific recommendations made for each population:

Promote Community Based Programs in Collaboration with Violence-Specific Agencies

Some women and girls are more likely to access services that come from within their communities. Such services circumvent many of the barriers and fears women face in seeking services from providers unfamiliar with their identities or circumstances. Specific ways to achieve the goal of collaboration include promoting outreach to specific populations, promoting provider education and training projects, promoting education and sensitivity training of authorities and caretakers, developing community based transitional and long-term housing, providing viable alternatives to violent environments, promoting family oriented holistic programs, promoting programs that address all forms of violence, promoting programs to deal with perpetrators of violence, and promoting early childhood violence prevention and intervention education.

Promote Empowerment Programs

A lack of resources and choices severely limits a woman's options in dealing with violence. Prevention efforts must include programs that promote the empowerment of women such as promoting job training and placement programs, promoting immigration and naturalization programs and life skills educational programs for immigrant women, promoting self-defense classes, and promoting enhancement of personal strengths.

Promote a Public Awareness Campaign

If the city of San Francisco is committed to ending violence as it is now defined within the service provider, activist, and academic communities, then it must convince all of its citizens that these defined acts are violent and that assistance is available. An integrated public awareness campaign should be conducted targeting all communities and using multiple, culturally appropriate methods which promote a single city-wide definition of violence; define the negative consequences of violence to the individual, family, and community; promote community intolerance of all these forms of violence; reinforce that all communities are vulnerable to violence; explain where to seek help from violence;

explain what will happen when seeking help, including what a person's rights are with respect to child custody, immigration, and economic support; and provide models of alternative, non-violent behavior.

Promote Training of Authorities and Private Sector Providers

Programs to train authorities and private sector providers such as doctors, therapists, and lawyers to identify abuse and to respond appropriately to both abusers and survivors must be promoted and funded.

Expand Existing VAW Programs

Existing VAW programs are either oversubscribed or, due to a lack of funding and/or qualified staffing, not offered on a consistent basis. Of particular concern, and in need of expansion are long-term counseling and support groups, and emergency shelter programs.

Improve Agency Infrastructure and Operations

In order to serve more efficiently the women and girls of San Francisco, agencies should improve physical access to their existing services, and expand their operating hours. It is hoped that agencies will be assisted in these efforts by the City and private funders as well as through assistance in the purchase of agency offices, the standardization of reporting requirements of funders, and the provision of computer programs to agencies to manage reporting requirements.

1 The category of legal help includes assistance from the police as many respondents included law enforcement in their understanding of legal help.

2 Education refers to educating women and girls about their options in dealing with violence and educating potential abusers about appropriate behavior.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors would like to thank the numerous women and girls who experienced violence and agreed to speak to us about their experiences and needs, but who must remain anonymous. It is their voices we must hear if we are to understand what is needed to prevent and deal with violence. We thank Latika Malkani, Rosario Navarrette, and Sonia Melara of the Commission on the Status of Women for their tremendous support throughout the research. Congjung Ouyang, Kar Lok Leung, Linda Brown, Helen Sharatov, and Maricarmen Arjona generously donated their time to translate the surveys into Chinese, Russian, and Spanish. We thank Dr. Rufus Browning, Diane Godard, Eric Lindgrem, Helen Sharatov and their team of interviewers at the Public Research Institute for conducting the survey and for their commitment to this project. We also thank Ms. Noelia Mendoza Selgado who contributed significant time to interviewing and researching on this study. We would also like to thank the following individuals who generously contributed their time and expertise to help us understand violence and VAW services in San Francisco:

Jessica Aronoff
Claire Barnes
John Beem
Carol Bradley
Phoebe Brown
Tracy Brown
Amy Buhlig
Tara Burton
Joy Caneda
Denise Caramagno
Oscar Chacon
Robert Chan
Mariam Chase
Rev. Harry Chuck
Firoza Chic Dabby
Ira Dayen
Lori Dobeus
Sema Dudum
Nina Rose Fischer
Audrey Fong
Jody Friedman
Maha El-Genaidi
Jennifer Grant
Mercedes Gonzalez
Damone Hale
Tombi Howell
Nelson Jim
Minouche Kandel
Dr. Vanessa Kelly
Mimi Kim
Quyen Le
Jane Lee
Claudia Leon
Kae Lewis
Joanne Lin
Lisa Lloyd
Marcella Logan
Elaine McKeller
Martha McNeill
Anita Malepeai
Colleen Matthews
Karen Patterson Matthews
Lydia Mendoza
Wanjiru Nyanjui
Maggie Paul
Dean Peacock
Abeer Rafidi
Jennifer Rakowski
Rev. Ashirvadam Rayikanti
Liana Recoder
Jennifer Reed
Grace Regan
Rebecca Rolfe
Wayne Salazar
Nahid Shaikh
Patricia Shirley
Tina Shum
Krista Spangler
Tricia Stapleton
Sonia Sztejnklaper
Kenneth Theisen
Patsy Tita
Beverly Upton
Dr. Renata Vaselli-Augenstein
Rachel West
Linda Wohlrabe
Ernest Woo
Cynthia Yannacone

 

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 PURPOSE

The Commission on the Status of Women (COSW) has requested this needs assessment of Violence against Women and Girls services in the City of San Francisco. The goals are to determine the needs of clients currently receiving Violence against Women (VAW) services from agencies funded by COSW, from agencies not funded by COSW, and of potential clients not currently receiving services. In assessing the needs of these three groups, this study describes services that are offered currently, barriers experienced by women and girls in seeking and accessing services, and gaps in current programming that need to be addressed. This study also identifies and describes populations that experience a higher risk of exposure to violence and/or are currently under-served by the existing VAW programs in San Francisco. In conclusion, recommendations, based upon the experiences, needs, and concerns of San Francisco's women and girls and the insights and experiences of service providers, are offered to improve the provision of violence prevention and intervention services.

1.2 DEFINING VIOLENCE: AN ANTHROPOLOGICAL APPROACH

Violence against women and girls in contemporary U.S. society is pervasive. All women and girls are potential targets of violence regardless of whether they are rich or poor, disabled or able-bodied, heterosexual or lesbian, of a particular age, or a member of a particular ethnic, cultural or religious group. While the threat of violence affects all women and girls, a complex interaction of social factors may produce different experiences of violence for particular populations. These factors include economic resources and opportunities, immigrant status, and societal attitudes and prejudices regarding race, ethnicity, religion, gender, and sexuality. The interplay of these various factors results in different risks for exposure to violence and in different needs for services.

In defining violence, it is critical to understand that violence against women is not a singular phenomenon but manifests itself in many forms and contexts. In this study, violence has been defined to include physical, emotional, sexual, psychological, and/or financial abuse or control. Sexual assault includes rape, sexual abuse, sexual harassment, and incest. In examining needs and services, this study includes all violence whether perpetrated by an intimate partner or family member, by a stranger or acquaintance, or by an authority figure.

While this definition of violence guided research, it was necessary to determine if it resonates with the diverse populations that reside in San Francisco. The first step in understanding the needs of women and girls is determining how violence is identified and dealt with by different communities. Gaining the perspectives of women and girls who have experienced violence has been a central priority of this study and has influenced the identification of priority populations and the generation of recommendations that meet the needs of the diverse communities in San Francisco.

This needs assessment also has been guided by the recognition that the impact of violence against women and girls permeates all social domains, and as such, responses to violence should not be limited to the medical, legal and educational arenas. In order to prevent violence and effectively provide services tailored to the needs of women and girls who experience violence, the context in which the violence occurs and the specific challenges facing women must be considered in conjunction with each other.

1.3 SCOPE OF VIOLENCE

In understanding women and girls' experiences of violence and their needs, it is helpful to understand the scope of violence. Sources of data on violence against women and girls, particularly at the local level, are limited. The rates reported do not accurately reflect the real scope of violence. Many women do not report crimes of violence, particularly if they have not sustained a physical injury, do not seek medical help or are not identified as victims of violence, or they seek medical help from private facilities and, thus, are not included in official statistics.

1.3.1 Intimate Violence

Intimate partner violence is pervasive in U.S. society.

Nationally, nearly 25% of surveyed women and 7.5% of surveyed men said they were raped and/or physically assaulted by a current or former spouse, cohabiting partner, or date at some point in their lifetime. And 1.5% of surveyed women and 0.9% of surveyed men said they were raped and/or physically assaulted by an intimate partner in the previous 12 months.1

Nationally, a current or former husband, cohabiting partner, or date assaulted 76% of women who were raped and/or physically assaulted since the age of 18.2

Approximately 1.5 million women and 834,732 men are raped and/or physically assaulted by an intimate partner annually in the United States. Because many victims are victimized more than once, the number of intimate partner victimizations exceeds the number of intimate partner victims annually. Thus, annually, approximately 4.9 million and 2.9 million intimate partner rapes and physical assaults are perpetrated against women and men respectively.3

Women ages 19-29 reported more violence perpetrated by intimates than any other age group.4

Violence against women occurs in 20% of dating couples.5

Nationally, female homicide victims are more than twice as likely to have been killed by an intimate partner than are male homicide victims.6

20% of women killed in California in 1998 were killed by their spouse. Another 40% were killed by a friend or acquaintance, which includes ex-husbands or boyfriends.7

Nearly 80% of stalking cases occur within intimate relationships8 and approximately 1,000,000 women are stalked annually in the United States.9

In 1998, there were 1,188 arrests for domestic violence in San Francisco.10

Two/thirds of women murdered in San Francisco were killed by their spouse, partner or ex-partner.11

Physical and sexual violence perpetrated against women by intimates is accompanied by emotionally abusive and controlling behavior. The National Violence Against Women survey found that women whose partners were jealous, controlling, or verbally abusive were significantly more likely to report being raped, physically assaulted, and/or stalked by their partners, even when other socio-demographic and relationship variables were controlled. Indeed, having a verbally abusive partner was the variable most likely to predict that a woman would be victimized by an intimate partner. These findings support the theory that violence perpetrated against women by intimates is part of a systematic pattern of dominance and control.12

According to the same survey, most intimate partner assaults are not reported to the police. Only approximately one-fifth of all rapes, one-quarter of all physical assaults, and one-half of all stalkings perpetrated against females by intimates were reported to police. Even fewer rapes, physical assaults, and stalkings perpetrated against male respondents by intimates were reported. The majority of victims who did not report their victimization to the police thought the police would not or could not do anything on their behalf. These findings suggest that most victims of intimate partner violence do not consider law enforcement an appropriate vehicle for resolving conflicts with intimates.

1.3.2 Sexual Assault

Sexual assault is an encompassing term that includes any sexual activity that is forced upon a person. The force used may be physical or the use of threats, fear, pressure, or drugs and alcohol. Various research efforts suggest that perhaps only 16% to 36% of all rapes are ever reported.13, 14

1 in 6 U.S. women has experienced an attempted or completed rape as a child and/or adult.15

1 in 3 women and 1 in 5 men will be sexually assaulted in their lifetime.16

78% of rape victims are estimated to know their rapist.17

64% of rapes and 80% of attempted rapes are not reported to police.18

In 1998, 252 forcible rapes were reported to the police in San Francisco and 231 patients were seen at the Rape Treatment Center.19 In 1999, 212 forcible rapes were reported.20

1.3.3 Child Sexual Assault

Sexual assaults against children are underreported and surely represent a more significant problem then statistics indicate.

3.2% of girls and 0.6% of boys reported suffering, at some point in their lives, sexual abuse involving physical contact.21

1 in 4 girls and 1 in 6 boys will be sexually abused before they turn 18.22

In 1999, 431 children and adolescents were seen at the San Francisco Child and Adolescent Sexual Abuse Resource Center.23

In 1996, the San Francisco Department of Human Services received an average of 22 calls per day reporting possible child abuse, neglect, exploitation or abandonment of children in San Francisco.24

1.3.4 Sexual Harassment

Sexual harassment is any unwanted sexual conduct such as sexual words or behaviors meant to frighten, humiliate, embarrass, objectify, or intimidate a person.

Studies report that between 40% and 90% of women in the United States workforce have experienced sexual harassment on the job.25

Only 10% to 15% of women who experienced harassment protected themselves by responding assertively or by reporting the harassment to employers or authorities.26

50% of women who filed a complaint of sexual harassment in California were fired. Another 25% resigned due to the stresses of the complaint process or the harassment itself.27

4 in 5 students reported experiencing sexual harassment at some point during their schooling.28

2 in 3 students surveyed have been targets of sexual comments, touching, grabbing, or pinching in a sexual way at school.29

Among girls who have been harassed, 81% report having been harassed by a male acting alone and 57% by a group of males.30

18% of students who have been harassed cite an adult as the perpetrator.31

Fewer than 1 in 10 students who have been sexually harassed say they have told a teacher, although girls are twice as likely to have reported the harassment than boys.32

1.3.5 Elder Abuse

Elder abuse includes physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, abandonment, fiduciary abuse, mental suffering, and isolation.

In 1996, 450,000 elderly persons in domestic settings were abused.33

Female elders are abused at a higher rate than male elders even after controlling for their larger proportion in the aging population.34

Our oldest elders, those 80 years and over, are abused at two to three times their proportion of the elderly population.35

In almost 90% of the elder abuse and neglect incidents with a known perpetrator, the perpetrator is a family member and two-thirds of the perpetrators are adult children or spouses.36

Neglect was the most frequent type of abuse of elders, affecting 48.7% of all victims of elder abuse. 60% of the victims of neglect were female.37

Emotional/psychological abuse is the second most frequent form of abuse of elders, affecting 35.4% of all elder abuse victims. 76.3% of the victims were female.38

From September 1999 to February 2000, San Francisco had 134 confirmed cases of elder abuse.39

1.3.6 Youth Dating Violence

A summary of several studies indicates the average prevalence rate for non-sexual dating violence is 22% among both male and female high school students and 32% among college students.40

A study of 8th and 9th grade male and female students showed that 25% had been victims of non-sexual dating violence and 8% had been victims of sexual dating violence.41

While studies of high school students suggest that both males and females "inflict" and "receive" dating violence in equal proportion, females are more often defending themselves rather than perpetrating the violence. Thus, it is important not to assume that youth dating violence is "mutual" where both partners have equal power and are acting violently towards each other.42

A recent study in San Francisco found that 40% of girls between the ages of 10-17 reported that they or a friend had been abused by a boyfriend.43

1.3.7 Hate Violence

Hate violence is violence perpetrated against a person because of her or his ethnic identification, national origin, religion, sexual orientation, gender identification, mental or physical disability or other defining identity. Feminist analysts and activists against violence have suggested that violence against women must be seen as hate violence where misogyny is the motivating factor, rather than as a crime against an individual who happens to be female. The Hate Crimes Statistics Act does not include hate crimes against women. Over 2,000 hate crimes were reported in California in 1999. These crimes affected 2,436 victims:44

59.8% of hate crimes were committed against persons because of their ethnicity with African Americans experiencing the highest victimization.

22.2% of hate crimes were committed against persons because of their sexual orientation or gender identity.

17.2% of hate crimes were committed against persons because of their religion with Jews experiencing the highest victimization.

0.1% of hate crimes were committed against persons because of their physical or mental disability.

In San Francisco in 1999, there were 192 hate crime `events'45, 195 hate crime `offenses'46 and 227 hate crime victims..47

2.0 METHODOLOGY

In pursuing the goals of the research, a wide array of individuals have contributed to both the qualitative and quantitative data. These include service providers; past, current, and potential clients; scholars working on violence against women; and individuals who, through either their membership in particular communities or their work with those communities, are able to offer insight into the factors that impact upon a woman's ability to access services. As anthropologists, we are committed to the ideal of research that serves social transformation, avoids harming those studied, and acknowledges the expertise and extensive knowledge of those being studied. These principles guided us throughout all phases of research.

Primary data was collected in three phases:

2.1 PHASE ONE: IDENTIFICATION OF SERVICES

The first phase of research identified VAW services available in San Francisco. Twenty-one COSW funded agencies were interviewed first to determine the type of services available, their client base, the barriers their clients face in receiving services, the barriers they face in providing services, and their perception of priority populations (see Appendix A for interview schedule). These agency interviews yielded referrals to other agencies providing VAW services or agencies that work with populations deemed at-risk or under-served. These agencies were then contacted and an interview was requested. A total of thirty-one such agencies agreed to be interviewed (see Appendix B for complete list of agencies interviewed). The majority of interviews were conducted in person at the agencies to allow the interviewer to observe agency facilities and operations. In some cases, interviews were conducted at another location or by telephone. Interviews were then analyzed to determine available services and priority populations.

2.2 PHASE TWO: PRIORITY POPULATION FOCUS GROUPS AND INTERVIEWS

The second phase of research determined the needs of and barriers faced by women and girls in the priority populations. Three methods were used to gather this data:

2.2.1 Focus groups

Focus groups were conducted with Native American women who had experienced violence, Korean service providers and survivors of violence, and Youth (see Appendix C for focus group guide). These focus groups were conducted in an environment familiar to participants, were anonymous, and were tape recorded with permission.

2.2.2 One-on-one interviews

One-on-one interviews (see Appendix D for interview guide) were conducted with women who have experienced violence and are members of the following priority populations: Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgender (LBT) women; Muslim; Chinese; Vietnamese; African-American; incarcerated women; and sexual assault survivors. Interviews were conducted in person at the woman's home, at an agency, or at a café, and were tape recorded if permission was granted.

2.2.3 Key informant interviews

People who have expertise on a specific population either because of their membership in that population or their work with that population, were interviewed. Key informant interviews (see Appendix E for interview guide) were conducted for the following populations: Russian; Samoan; Korean; Filipina; African immigrant; Arab-American; South Asian; Cambodian; Laotian; Vietnamese; Latina immigrant; African-American; Native American; Muslim; perpetrator; low income women; middle and upper income women; sex workers; pregnant women; incarcerated women; homeless women; the elderly; sexual assault survivors; substance abusers; disabled women; LBT women; and youth. Interviews were conducted either in-person or by telephone.

These focus groups and interviews were analyzed to determine vulnerabilities, barriers, and service needs specific to each population. This information is presented in the population summaries. Additionally, common themes were noted across all populations, which led to the identification of general barriers and general recommendations.

2.3 PHASE THREE: CITY-WIDE SURVEY OF CURRENT AND POTENTIAL CLIENTS

Utilizing data from the first two phases of research, a survey instrument was developed to assess the needs of women who have used VAW services as well as women in the general population (see Appendix F for survey instrument). Care was taken that responses to close-ended questions accurately reflected the variety of responses given by women in phases one and two both in content and language. In order to reach a representative sample of San Francisco's population as well as women who have used VAW services, the survey was administered using three different methods. First, surveys were administered at a Native American Pow Wow to insure a sample of Native American respondents. A Native American woman distributed surveys and respondents self-administered the survey. Second, surveys in English, Spanish, and Chinese were administered at agencies to insure a sample of women who have received VAW services or who are members of communities shown to be under-represented in phone surveys. These surveys were self-administered by respondents unless there were issues with literacy in which case agency staff assisted respondents. Third, surveys were administered over the telephone. San Francisco State University's Public Research Institute conducted this phase of the survey using a random digit dialing sampling frame and a trained staff of seven women interviewers. Language translation was provided by bilingual/bicultural interviewers for Spanish-speaking, Russian-speaking, and Chinese (Cantonese and Mandarin)-speaking respondents. Additional technical details about survey administration may be found in Appendix G.

In addition to the three phases of primary data collection, researchers also attended the following meetings and conferences: a meeting of the San Francisco Domestic Violence Consortium; the Multicultural Family Violence Prevention Conference in Sacramento; a Korean American Coalition to End Domestic Abuse (KACEDA) retreat; the City of Mountain View's Town Meeting on Domestic Violence; and the Community United Against Violence's press conference on lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender hate violence. Data gathered from these meetings and conferences, in conjunction with the primary data and a review of the academic literature, provide the basis for the findings and recommendations of this needs assessment.

3.0 SERVICES

3.1 DEFINING SERVICES

VAW services may be classified broadly as either prevention or intervention services. Prevention services attempt to reduce the incidence of violence in a population by addressing known or suspected factors associated with violence. Examples of prevention efforts include anger management programs, parenting classes, literacy classes, skill development classes, and tolerance programs.

Intervention services may be classified as either crisis or non-crisis intervention services. Crisis intervention services provide assistance to women and girls at the time of or immediately after an experience of violence and are usually focused on the immediate needs for health and safety. Examples include emergency shelters, emergency hotlines, crisis counseling, and accompanying survivors to medical facilities. Non-crisis intervention services provide assistance to individuals and families already impacted by violence in order to prevent further harm or reduce risk of future victimization. Examples include vocational counseling and referrals for job training, assistance in finding housing, assistance in planning for safety, and long-term individual and group counseling.

Initially, the effort to deal with violence against women and girls focused primarily on intervention. Recently, however, more emphasis has focused on developing prevention efforts with the recognition that intervention, alone, cannot address the complex dynamics of violence.48 Under the current system of funding, the commitment of resources to intervention, particularly crisis intervention, limits the availability of resources for prevention. Prevention efforts require the greatest commitment of resources over time, are the most difficult to evaluate, and encompass goals, such as the empowerment of women, that are difficult and slow to achieve.

Within prevention and intervention services, agencies are also increasingly emphasizing outreach such as public education, professional education, and interagency collaboration. These providers have sought to enlarge the understanding of community members and professionals about the nature, dangers, consequences, and prevalence of violence, and to inform them about the services available. Outreach may entail education of and collaboration with community leaders representing religious, cultural, recreational, and service organizations, encouraging them to assist in community-wide efforts to reduce violence.

3.2 SERVICE MODELS

Operating within these broad categories of services are several models of service delivery. These models are based upon numerous theoretical perspectives and emphasize different approaches to providing prevention and intervention services. No single model is intrinsically superior to another. However, each model has particular strengths and weaknesses in dealing with specific populations, specific types of violence, and the specific needs of individuals. In this study, we have identified and described various service delivery models with the realization that the most effective models in delivering services to particular priority populations or in dealing with specific types of violence may differ.

3.2.1 Traditional Models

Traditional models of service delivery are rooted in the helping traditions of social welfare and public health, and are usually utilized by public social service agencies that serve a population defined by the problem. Service delivery is problem-specific with narrow, clearly delineated purposes, geared to treating a problem after it occurs. Tight resources and funding constraints require program planners to focus intervention efforts within these models on central, crisis-oriented goals. This method is spare and efficient both with regards to staff and resource utilization, but is somewhat inflexible. Efforts to revise the template approach are underway with the introduction of cultural competency standards. An example of this model in action is the Department of Public Health's Rape Treatment Center.

3.2.2 Feminist Models

Feminist models of service delivery developed out of the grassroots battered women's movement of the 1970s. These models find the foundations of violence against women in society's patriarchal norms. Thus, the historical goal has been to empower clients. The focus is primarily upon the woman as an autonomous individual. Children initially were considered "secondary" victims of domestic violence, and thus were not primary targets of service interventions.49 However, focus has expanded, out of necessity, to include services for children since children accompany 80% of women in shelters.50 In dealing with domestic violence, these models emphasize the "cycle of violence" and the need for the survivor to break that cycle by leaving the batterer. The "cycle of violence" refers to research that suggests that violence occurs in a cyclical pattern of first a tension-building phase, then the violent episode, then a loving reconciliation, and then a return to abuse. These models have used the establishment of shelters as an important and successful tool in enabling women to escape abuse. Two strong assumptions of this model are that abuse escalates over time and the perpetrator is very unlikely to end his or her abusive behavior. W.O.M.A.N., Inc. is an example of an agency founded and operating within a feminist model.

3.2.3 Alternative Models

Service providers have realized that models that treat all women the same are inadequate. This is particularly true in today's multicultural society. Women's responses to violence vary widely and are based upon characteristics of (1) the violence and abuse, (2) the woman or girl, (3) the perpetrator, and (4) the context or environment in which the violence occurs and in which the woman must respond to and heal from it. Alternative models have been developed which are adaptations of existing models. These models tend to be more integrated and have flexible service designs aimed at supporting the needs of women within the context of their families and communities. They do not focus solely on the woman, but also include supports to her family and community. They have been developed to serve the needs of immigrants; gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender (GLBT) people; many people of color; and others with significant cultural or religious differences from dominant society. These models are sometimes referred to as "holistic" models, because they consider variables such as spirituality, the power of unity, wholeness, cultural values, and the support of family and community. Donaldina Cameron House and Glide Memorial's Black Extended Family Recovery Program are examples of agencies or services operating within holistic, alternative models.

One alternative model, the family model, deals with violence by treating the family as a unit. At times, this means including the perpetrator in cases of domestic violence, if it does not compromise family safety and if it is what the survivor wants. Alongside a respect for those with a strong familial orientation, is a philosophy that respects an individual's autonomy while placing a priority on safety. This model is also based on the idea that everyone in the family is affected by an individual's experience of violence and there is a need for each person in the family to be supported during this difficult time. The UCSF/Mt. Zion Violence Prevention Project's Pathways and LINC programs utilize a family model in dealing with violence.

As previously stated, no single model is intrinsically superior to another model. However, some models or a combination of models are better suited for reaching specific populations, dealing with specific types of violence, or helping women with different needs.

What is clear from this research is that an integrated, citywide response to violence must include all models, preferably operating in collaboration with each other. Interviews with agencies indicate that there is some tension among agencies over the best model for approaching violence. Agencies should be encouraged to recognize the unique strengths and weaknesses of their own and other's approaches, to acknowledge that no single model will be sufficient to resolve violence, and that by working in collaboration with each other prevention, intervention and outreach to all San Franciscans will be more effective.

3.3 SERVICES AVAILABLE IN SAN FRANCISCO

Both violence-specific agencies and agencies that deal with priority populations were interviewed to determine the types of services available in San Francisco for women and girls who experience violence. The services provided by these agencies are described in Appendix H. In addition to this summary of services, each priority population summary lists services targeted to that population.

The following tables present a numerical summary of services categorized by those provided by violence-specific agencies and those provided by non-violence specific agencies:

 

I. SERVICES PROVIDED BY VIOLENCE SPECIFIC AGENCIES

Type of Service

Number of Existing Programs

Intervention Services

 

Shelters and Housing:

7

Emergency Safe Housing

3

Emergency non-Safe Housing

2

Transitional Housing

2

Crisis Lines

12

Medical Services:

5

Crisis

2

Non-Crisis

3

Psychological Services:

24

Crisis

3

Non-Crisis

21

Legal Services

14

Advocacy/Accompaniment

11

Vocational Counseling/Job Training

5

Referral/Information

5

Prevention Services

 

Self-Defense

6

Skill Development

3

Personal Resource Development/Life Skills

9

Education/Outreach

16

 
 

 

 

II. SERVICES PROVIDED BY NON-VIOLENCE SPECIFIC AGENCIES

Type of Service

Number of Existing Programs

Intervention Services

 

Shelters and Housing:

13

Emergency Housing

5

Transitional Housing

8

Medical Services

1

Crisis

1

Non-Crisis

0

Psychological Services

9

Crisis

1

Non-Crisis

8

Legal Services

3

Advocacy/Accompaniment

0

Vocational Counseling/Job Training

1

Referral/Information

1

Prevention Services

 

Self-Defense

0

Skill Development

3

Personal Resource Development/Life Skills

2

Education/Outreach

2

 

4.0 SURVEY OF SAN FRANCISCO'S WOMEN AND GIRLS

A citywide survey of women and girls was conducted to determine their needs and desires for services. Both women and girls who had and had not experienced violence were questioned about their needs should they ever experience violence in the future. To assure that respondents were using the same definition of violence, they were asked to answer questions based on the following definition of violence: "By violence, we are talking about all types of violence such as being called names, yelled at, mocked, threatened, or other emotional abuse; being slapped, hit, pushed or other physical abuse; being forced to have sex; or being harassed."

Preliminary qualitative research suggested that needs and experiences vary according to the perpetrator and context of the violence. Therefore, survey questions were categorized according to the perpetrator of the violence: an intimate partner or family member, a stranger or acquaintance, and an authority figure. For each potential situation of violence, women and girls were asked to identify the services they would need, where they would seek these services, their most likely course of action if confronted with violence, and possible reasons why women and girls might not seek any services for such violence. They were able to provide up to three responses including open-ended responses.

Women were also asked about their perception of the severity of violence against women and girls in San Francisco, the adequacy of existing services, and the importance of five service provider characteristics:

1) the use of interpreters versus bilingual providers,

2) the provision of services within or outside one's community,

3) the provision of services by a provider of the same or different sexual orientation,

4) the provision of services by someone of the same or different ethnicity, and

5) the provision of services by someone sensitive to and knowledgeable of their "background" (to be interpreted as the identity most salient to the respondent, e.g., ethnicity, religion, age, etc.).

Finally, women were asked about the most effective approaches for informing women and girls about available services and the most effective programs for preventing violence.

4.1 DEMOGRAPHICS

4.1.1 Description of the Sample

A total of 361 women and girls living in San Francisco answered the COSW Survey. The refusal rate was 65% for the in-person surveys and 60% for the telephone surveys. We believe this is due to the sensitive nature of the topic. Residents of all areas of San Francisco were represented. The age range of respondents was from 12 to 60 + but the majority were between the ages of 30 and 60. The majority of respondents were not currently living with an intimate partner and a majority had children. The majority were also US born and preferred to have the survey administered in English. Members of ethnic/racial groups were represented in proportion to their presence in the population. The majority of respondents identify as straight although there were eleven respondents who identify as lesbian, bisexual or transgender. The majority of respondents had attended college. The respondent's annual household income ranged from under $10,000 to over $80,000 with the majority under $30,000. At least 22% of respondents answered the survey while seeking VAW services and, therefore, are known to have experienced violence. We did not ask respondents directly if they had ever experienced violence, so we cannot make a statement regarding experiences with violence for the remaining respondents.

survey respondents: age compositionsurvey respondents: marital status

survey respondents: ethnic/racial composition

survey respondents: immigrant statussurvey respondents: annual income

4.1.2 Representativeness of the Sample

In comparing demographic characteristics with data on San Francisco women as a whole51, the COSW Survey respondents were comparable on ethnicity, immigrant status, marital status, and educational attainment. Data on the proportion of LBT residents in San Francisco are not available so we are unable to assess representativeness other than to note our low participation rate. There was a higher proportion of survey respondents who were younger than 30, Latinas, had children, and were less affluent than San Francisco women as a whole.

Within the sample, those reached by telephone and those in person also differ from each other in some characteristics:

Income - The difference in income was most salient with 84% of the in-person respondents having an income less than $30,000 as compared to 28% of the telephone respondents. Less than 5% of in-person respondents made over $60,000 while 22% of telephone respondents did.

Age - The average age of those reached by telephone was 40 as compared to 34 for the in-person administration. However this was by design as we made a concerted effort to have youth respondents for the in-person survey.

Ethnicity - The telephone survey under-represents Native Americans and speakers of Chinese. The in-person survey obtained higher proportions of Native respondents, but fewer White respondents, than the telephone survey. Both modes of administration under-represents Asians.

Sexual Orientation - The in-person survey obtained a higher proportion of LBT respondents than the telephone survey.

Marital Status - The in-person survey had more respondents who were separated or divorced (23%) than the telephone survey (12%).

Children - 50% of those reached by phone have children as compared to 66% of those who responded in-person.

4.1.3 Sampling Error

The estimated sampling error at the .95 confidence level is _5 percentage points for a sample of 360. This means that we are 95% confident that all women residents of San Francisco would produce responses to each survey question within a little more or less than five percentage points of the results obtained from this sample. For example, 84% of survey respondents believed that violence against women and girls in San Francisco was either a very serious or serious problem. We are 95% sure that if we asked all women residents of San Francisco, between 79% and 89% would have the same response. This measurable error, which results from using a sample to represent a whole population, does not account for other sources of error such as non-response bias.

4.2 SEVERITY OF VIOLENCE AND ADEQUACY OF SERVICES

Of the women and girls surveyed, 34% thought violence against women and girls in San Francisco was a serious problem while 50% thought it was a very serious problem. There was no significant difference in these results when comparing by demographics although a slightly higher percentage of US-born respondents believe violence is very serious as compared to foreign-born.

40% of the respondents felt that there were not enough services in San Francisco for women and girls who experienced violence, while 43% were not sure. This may reflect women and girl's unfamiliarity with services currently available.

4.3 VIOLENCE FROM AN INTIMATE PARTNER OR FAMILY MEMBER

4.3.1 Needs

When asked what kind of help would be needed if they experienced violence from an intimate partner or a family member, the most common answer was therapy (counseling, support groups, etc.) (17%), followed by legal help52 (14%), a place to go such as a shelter or group home (13%), and support from family or friends (11%). As to where they would seek this help, 28% would use informal networks of friends, family members and co-workers, 21% stated they would seek help at VAW agencies and 18% would seek help from a health care provider.

Help needed if experience violence from family member/intimate

4.3.2 Options

When asked what options were most feasible when confronted with violence perpetrated by an intimate partner or family member, 28% of respondents would call the police and 27% would seek help from family or friends. Other common responses were to get a restraining order (11%), get counseling (8%) and move to a shelter (8%).

graph of options if experience violence from a family member/intimate

4.3.3 Reasons for not Seeking Services

The reasons most often cited for why women and girls do not seek services for violence from an intimate partner or family member differed markedly depending on the respondent's experience of violence and utilization of VAW services. Women and girls who had experienced violence and were receiving VAW services believed the reasons women and girls do not seek services are confusion53 (22%), followed by Other54 (of which relationship dynamics was the most common write-in response) (14%), and fear of retaliation (10%). Women and girls whose violence history was unknown also mentioned fear of retaliation (16%) and relationship dynamics (12%) but shame (11%) was also a frequent response. In contrast, only 3% of women and girls who experienced violence and were receiving VAW services mentioned shame. This does not necessarily mean that shame is not an important reason for why women do not seek help for violence. It may, rather, reflect that among women who experience violence, those who make the step to seek and utilize VAW services feel less shame than those who do not seek services. Or, alternatively, it may reflect a change in perception after having received VAW services.

Reasons for not seeking services for violence from a family member/intimate

4.4 VIOLENCE FROM A STRANGER OR ACQUAINTANCE

In explaining this potential situation of violence, respondents were asked to consider violence "from a stranger or someone you do not know well such as a neighbor, a friend of a friend, or someone you may pass on the street on the way to work or school, etc."

4.4.1 Needs

The most frequently mentioned types of help needed for violence from a stranger are legal help (23%), followed by therapy (11%), and support from family and friends (11%). Other needs commonly mentioned are medical treatment (10%) and steps to make one feel safe55 (8%). Five percent of respondents gave an open-ended answer, the most common being immediate self-defense measures to help fight off an attacker such as fighting and yelling. Respondents stated that they would seek these types of help by asking for referrals from an informal network of friends and family (32%), from health care providers (24%) and from either community-based organizations (14%) or official entities such as law enforcement (14%).

Help needed if experience violence from a stranger

4.4.2 Options

Women and girls overwhelmingly responded that they would call the police (53%) if they were in a situation of violence from a stranger or an acquaintance. Other responses given were avoiding the person (10%), getting help from friends or family (9%), getting a restraining order (7%) and calling a 24 hour hotline (7%).

graph of options if experience violence form a stranger

4.4.3 Reasons for not Seeking Services

Again, women and girls who have experienced violence and are receiving services cited confusion (15%) as the most common reason women and girls do not seek services in a situation of violence from a stranger. In contrast, respondents whose experience of violence is not known cited fear of retaliation (13%) as the most common reason. Women and girls who have experienced violence also identified fear of retaliation as a reason for not seeking services but less frequently (10%). Of open-ended responses, both groups cited lack of confidence in existing services and feelings of hopelessness as reasons women and girls do not seek services.

Reasons for not seeking services for violence from a stranger

4.5 VIOLENCE FROM AN AUTHORITY FIGURE

An authority figure was defined as "someone who has authority over you such as a police officer, an employer, a caretaker, or a teacher, etc."

4.5.1 Needs

In situations of violence from an authority figure, the most frequently mentioned types of help needed are legal help (24%), talking to someone who believes you (16%), therapy (12%) and support from family or friends (11%). Respondents said they would seek this help by using their informal network of friends, family, and co-workers (34%) or by going to institutional entities such as unions, labor boards, or law enforcement (20%). Community based organizations (15%) and health care providers (16%) were also mentioned as sources of help.

Help needed if experience violence from an authority figure

4.5.2 Options

Respondents said they would most likely report the incident to higher authorities (37%) if confronted with a situation of violence from an authority figure. The next most common responses were to get help from family or friends (12%) and to call the police (12%).

Graph of options if experience violence from an authority figure

4.5.3 Reasons for not Seeking Services

Sixteen percent of women and girls who have experienced violence and 24% of women whose history is unknown identified fear of retaliation as the main reason women and girls do not seek services for violence perpetrated by an authority figure. Thirteen percent of women and girls who have experienced violence also cited confusion. Ten percent of women whose violence history is not known cited a fear of not being taken seriously as a reason women and girls do not seek services.

Reasons for not seeking services for violence from person in authority

4.6 SERVICE PROVIDER PREFERENCES

If the service provider did not speak the same language but used an interpreter, 53% would be less likely to seek services while 29% would be as likely to seek services.

If the service agency were in the same neighborhood, 56% would be more likely to seek services while 29% would be just as likely.

If the service provider were of the same sexual orientation as the respondent, 51% would be just as likely to seek services while 37% would be more likely.

If the service provider were of the same ethnicity as the respondent, 50% would be just as likely to seek services while 39% would be more likely.

65% of the sample felt it was very important that the service provider be sensitive and knowledgeable about their "background" (interpreted as those characteristics most salient to the respondent).

4.7 INFORMING WOMEN AND GIRLS ABOUT AVAILABLE SERVICES

Tenty-nine percent of the sample felt that the most effective way of informing women and girls about services was through the media (e.g. newspaper, television, radio, billboard, and MUNI advertisements), followed by programs located at sites such as schools, daycare facilities, and the workplace (17%). Both community leaders and health workers were mentioned by 7% of the sample as being effective venues to inform people of available services.

Most effective way to inform women and girls about available services

4.8 PREVENTING VIOLENCE

The greatest diversity of responses appeared when respondents were asked what would be the most effective way to prevent violence against women and girls. The most frequently mentioned manner was to increase community awareness (14%), followed by self-defense/safety classes for women and girls (12%) and life skills classes such as parenting, job training, and self-empowerment training (12%). Also mentioned were anger management programs for abusers (11%) and diversionary programs for youth (e.g. after-school or summer programs) (11%). Nine percent provided open-ended responses, the most common of which was education.56

Most effective way to prevent violence against women and girls

 

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