Transit Trips with Bunching or Gaps Between Vehicles
San Francisco Municipal Transportation Agency
Goal: Less than 1.8% bunching and 8.8% gaps on the Rapid Network
Goal Status: NOT MEETING GOAL
Fiscal Year 2015-16 Result: 5.4% bunching and 17.1% gaps on the Rapid Network
The regularity of vehicle arrivals is the most important indicator of customer experience and reliability for the Muni Rapid Network, which carries almost 70 percent of all passengers and forms the backbone of Muni’s network, and enables the San Francisco Municipal Transit Agency (SFMTA) to track its ability to deliver frequent, reliable service. Data on where bunching or gaps in transit service occur also helps the SFMTA understand where potential transit priority projects will be most effective.
In addition, regularity of vehicle arrivals is the best measure of customer experience with transit reliability. Most Muni passengers ride routes that are scheduled to run frequently, and as such are unlikely to consult a printed schedule when planning their transit trips. For frequent routes, what is most important for customer experience is that the time between buses and trains (“headway”) is regular and close to the headways in the schedule. For example, if every single trip on the 5-Fulton were exactly 6 minutes late, on-time performance would be 0 percent (not a single bus arrived at the scheduled time), but customer experience with wait times would be excellent (the time between buses was exactly as scheduled, meaning no one waited longer than the scheduled headway).
Measuring bunching and gaps shows how Muni is performing on providing regular, reliable service on frequent lines. Regularity of vehicle arrivals has other ancillary benefits aside from minimizing passenger wait time. When buses are evenly spaced, crowding is also reduced, since gaps in service exacerbate crowding on the first bus at the end of a gap in service.
TRANSIT TRIPS WITH BUNCHING OR GAPS ON THE RAPID NETWORK
HOW THE SAN FRANCISCO MUNICIPAL TRANSPORTATION AGENCY IS PERFORMING
Muni Forward is the SFMTA’s program of service changes and transit priority street projects to improve safety and reliability, and establish a Rapid Network. Gaps declined in 2015 due to service increases starting in Spring 2015 as well as the hiring of more than 700 new operators. However, perhaps in part due to the service increases, bunching has slightly increased as more service is being delivered. Service increases were implemented again in Spring 2016, and other Muni Forward capital projects, such as the 14-Mission Rapid Project, have been implemented to improve travel speed, reliability, and safety.
Going forward, ongoing fleet replacement is expected to improve vehicle reliability and contribute to reduced bunching and gaps as less service is disrupted by fewer mechanical failures. More Muni Forward service improvements and transit priority projects are proposed for routes across the city, which should also continue to improve performance.
BUNCHING AND GAPS FOR TRANSIT TRIPS ARE NOT MEETING SERVICE GOALS
How Performance is Measured
The SFMTA monitors the regularity of vehicle arrivals by measuring the actual arrival times at designated points along transit routes and comparing them to the scheduled headways (time between vehicles). Time point arrival data from the NextBus system are used to compare actual versus scheduled headways (time between vehicles). Bunching occurs if a vehicle arrives less than two minutes after a preceding vehicle, or less than one minute for routes with vehicles scheduled to arrive every 5 minutes or less. A gap occurs if a vehicle arrives 5 or more minutes later than the scheduled headway.
The Rapid Network includes the 5R-Fulton Rapid, 7R-Haight/Noriega Rapid, 9R-San Bruno Rapid, 14R-Mission Rapid, 28R-19th Avenue Rapid, 38R-Geary Rapid, J-Church, KT-Ingleside/Third Street, L-Taraval, M-Ocean View and N-Judah lines.
The number displayed on the scorecard page represents a fiscal year average of the values in the charts above.
- View this metric and others on the SFMTA's website.
- Learn more about Muni Forward system improvements.
- Read the SFMTA's 2015 Annual Report.
- Read the SFMTA's Strategic Plan Progress Reports.
Please visit DataSF for the scorecard data.